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Quantum Black Holes: A Critical Analysis
by Y. Leblanc (eFieldTheory.COM)

Paperback: 256 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace (April 15, 2010)
ISBN-10: 1450542980
ISBN-13: 978-1450542982
List Price: $39.95 (USD)

This book presents an in-depth critical analysis of Bekenstein-Hawking Black Hole Thermodynamics. It also reviews the work of the Belinski group showing the non-existence of the Unruh and Hawking effects. These analyses lead to the collapse of Hawking's theory of black holes as thermal objects, leading to the breakdown of both the Area law and the Holographic principle. Quantum black holes are instead identified as pure state resonances (Gamow states) at the Planck scale.

Quantum Black Holes: A Critical Analysis
Letter from the Editor

Quantum Black Holes, the Holographic Principle and Pathological Science
Yvan Leblanc (eFieldTheory.COM)
Thursday, 21 June 2012

Hawking's quantum black holes

A CLASSICAL black hole is a massive object of high density which warps the spacetime of Einstein's General Relativity so dramatically that all matter and radiation crossing its horizon (a causal surface englobing its center) become trapped forever. Classically, nothing can escape from it and since light itself does not escape, the hole is black for external observers.

But what happens when the black hole horizon becomes so small that its size approaches the so-called Compton wavelength at which Quantum Mechanics takes over Classical Mechanics? There is no definitive answer to this question at the present time.

In the seventies, Hawking, Bekenstein and Unruh approached this question at the intermediate scale called "semiclassical". Two methods of approach exist at such a scale: (1) the so-called WKB approach and (2) the Mean-field approach.

In the WKB approach, Bekenstein and Hawking arrived at a description of a QUANTUM black hole as a black body (heat reservoir) in thermal equilibrium at the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature. The quantum black hole is then hot and emits heat in the form of particles also in equilibrium at the same temperature, a result apparently confirmed by Hawking in the Mean-field approach. This new theory of quantum black holes is called Bekenstein-Hawking Black Hole Thermodynamics.

So, contrary to classical black holes, quantum black holes of the Bekenstein-Hawking type allow particles to escape, albeit with a thermal signature. The thermal radiation from the black hole is called the Hawking effect, wich is similar to the so-called Unruh effect predicting thermal particle emission from the flat spacetime vacuum as seen by accelerating observers. This is sometimes viewed as a quantum equivalence principle.

The quantum black hole being a thermal object in the Hawking theory, its equilibrium state is characterized by a quantity called the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and which is calculated from the so-called Area law as one quarter of the horizon surface. Before Hawking's theory, entropy was a quantity characterizing the macroscopic states of matter such as gases, solids and liquids. Entropy is a measure of the number of macrostates and related to the information about the system.

Today, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (the Area law) constitutes the fundamental basis for the so-called Holographic Principle of 't Hooft-Susskind-Bousso and which limits the amount of information (in bits per square meters) contained in a theory of Quantum Gravity. This principle constitutes a universal link between geometry (horizon) and information (entropy).

A critical analysis

In 1992, I was an associate researcher at the physics department of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. At that time, one of my collaborators, Prof. Benjamin Harms was interested by Hawking's theory. I was not! But to help our theory group move forward, I suggested a project of studying the physics of a gas of Hawking's black holes. I had acquired a certain expertise in fields and strings at finite temperature in previous jobs at M.I.T. and Paris-Sud at Orsay.

To our surprise, our calculations rigorously showed the mathematical and physical impossibility for a thermal description of quantum black holes as put forward by Bekenstein-Hawking Black Hole Thermodynamics. A crucial quantity called the heat capacity is really negative in Hawking's theory. Every well educated physicist knows that the fundamental requirement for the existence of thermal equilibrium in normal systems is a positive heat capacity. Consequently black holes did not form normal systems and could not reach thermal equilibrium, ever! This meant the collapse of Black Hole Thermodynamics.

An alternative consistent and traditional interpretation of the WKB calculation led us instead to an entirely new description. Quantum black holes were identified as unstable Gamow resonances at the Planck scale, very much similar to the known resonances of nuclear physics. The latter however cannot be black holes as their Compton radii are larger than the size of their would-be horizon. Quantum black holes were in fact massive resonant excitations of so-called p-branes and strings, quantum objects that are believed to play a part in the unification of all the forces of nature, including gravity.

In the Leblanc-Harms WKB theory, quantum black holes were no longer thermal objects but pure state quantum resonances at the Planck scale, with no classical horizon and no longer characterized by temperature or entropy.

The concept of black hole entropy being evacuated in the new theory, the Area law as well as the related Holographic Principle are consequently no longer valid. Those laws cannot and do not form the fundamental building blocks of a theory of quantum gravity.

Since the mid-nineties, important complementary mathematical and physical studies from the Moscow and Rome theory group of Prof. Vladimir Belinski further confirmed the non-validity of the Unruh and Hawking effects within the Mean-field approach. While the Alabama group fully demonstrated the inconsistency of Bekenstein-Hawking Black Hole Thermodynamics, the Russian team formulated a rigorous proof of the non-existence of the Unruh and Hawking effects in Mean-Field theory.

The Leblanc-Harms theory combined with the results of the Belinski group therefore give the final blow to the thermal description of quantum black holes, as envisioned by Hawking and co-workers since the seventies.

Pathological science and Scholasticism

Although our results were accepted for publication in prestigious refereed Journals such as Physical Review D and presented at various international conferences in Boston, San Francisco, New York, Jerusalem, Banff and more recently in Paris (12th Marcel Grossmann Meetings, July 2009), there was very little feedback from the physics community. Back in 1992-93, I had hoped for our results to generate reactions and healthy discussions. That never was to be. No significant reaction.

Although these same results lead to the total collapse of Hawking's thermal black hole theory, many still today remain reluctant to abandon such a theory. The concept of black hole entropy in particular is a die hard, although there is absolutely no mathematical nor physical basis for it. The so-called Cambridge school of thoughts, which is composed of the club members of the Hawking thermal black hole theory, has cut itself off from sound physical principles to promote a new kind of theory, disconnected from the successful laws of Quantum Theory and Statistical Mechanics. Black Hole Thermodynamics research, not unlike String Theory research, arrogantly ignores the most serious criticisms. Black Hole Thermodynamics lies in the face of sound physics and forms the basis for a club that acts like a cult.

Black Hole Thermodynamics has often been viewed as a field with great potential for high rewards. So it is naturally targeted by select groups and prominent individuals who work hard to preserve their personal interests. This is an understandable competitional attitude, but one that is severely lacking in collegiality and science ethics. This is the beginning of pathological science.

Following his convincing proof about the impossibility of quantum tunneling through a black hole horizon, Prof. Belinski has himself attracted unfriendly responses. One response in particular is revealing: «Sadly there are a tiny but vociferous minority who do not believe in such tunneling at all, and instead believe that they have disproved it already.» (arXiv:0911.4417v1 [gr-qc])

D. L. Rousseau (Bell Laboratories, translated from a text in warns us: «Pathological science is created by the self-delusion of scientists who believe to be acting in a disciplined and scientific way while in fact they have lost their objectivity. Practitioners of pathological sciences cannot believe their findings to be wrong and are ready to ignore prevalent theories and critics from experts».

Critical analysis is fundamental to real scientific progress. In science, one should not be sad about the fact that other researchers can hold different views, when honest and thoughtful. In his historical perspective on the creation of the Landau Institute entitled "Our History", Isaak M. Khalatnikov (1996), Honorable Director of the Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, wrote the following: «The role of criticism in theoretical physics can hardly be overestimated because its absence means a speedy and unavoidable lapse into scholasticism and other sins. ... If there is no contact with practical physics, then theoretical physics is just scholasticism, having nothing to do with life» (Khalatnikov, I. M., 1996. Our History. In: Thirty years of the Landau Institute. Selected Papers. World Scientific, Singapore.).

Unfortunately, this is the disease that strucked quantum black hole and string theory research since the mid-seventies.



Publications by Yvan Leblanc

ArXiv (pub list) | INSPIRE-HEP (pub list) | INSPIRE-HEP (author stats) | ResearchGate

  1. Leblanc, Y., "Statistical Mechanics of Gamow States", manuscript no. eFTC-131202 (2013).
  2. Leblanc, Y., "Tilde Fields in Thermo Field Dynamics are Many-Body Physical Holes", manuscript no. eFTC-131201 (2013).
  3. Leblanc, Y., "Quantum Black Holes as Planck Scale Gamow States", manuscript no. eFTC-100701 (2010). In the Proceedings of the Twelfth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, edited by Thibault Damour, Robert T Jantzen and Remo Ruffini, p. 2383 (World Scientific, Singapore, 30 march 2012); Parallel Session SQG5 - Quantum Fields (UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, July 12-18, 2009).;
  4. Leblanc, Y., "Quantum Black Holes: A Critical Analysis", CreateSpace, Scotts Valley, CA (2010). Book no. eFTC-100401.;;
  5. Leblanc, Y., "Quantum Black Holes as Planck Scale Gamow States", Extended version of a presentation at the Twelfth Marcel Grossman Meeting (MG12), Parallel Session SQG5 - Quantum Fields (UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, July 12-18, 2009). Manuscript no. eFTC-090601 (2009).
  6. Leblanc, Y., "A Review of Quantum Black Hole Theories", manuscript no. eFTC-080401 (2008).
  7. Leblanc, Y., "The Quantum Black Hole Problem", manuscript no. eFTC-021201 (2002).
  8. Leblanc, Y., "Statistical Field Dynamics", manuscript no. eFTC-020701 (2002).
  9. Casadio, R., B. Harms and Y. Leblanc, "Microfield Dynamics of Black Holes", Phys.Rev. D58 (1998) 044014.
  10. Casadio, R., B. Harms and Y. Leblanc, "Statistical mechanics of Kerr-Newman dilaton black holes and the bootstrap condition", Phys.Rev. D57 (1998) 1309-1312.
  11. Casadio, R., B. Harms and Y. Leblanc, "Semiclassical Quantization on Black Hole Spacetimes", Appeared in the proceedings of the 8th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Jerusalem (1997).
  12. Casadio, R., B. Harms, Y. Leblanc and P.H. Cox, "Perturbations in the Kerr-Newman Dilatonic Black Hole Background: I. Maxwell waves", Phys.Rev. D56 (1997) 4948-4961.
  13. Casadio, R., B. Harms, Y. Leblanc and P.H. Cox, "New perturbative solutions of the Kerr-Newman dilatonic black hole field equations", Phys.Rev. D55 (1997) 814-825.
  14. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Black Objects in the Gauge Theory of P-Branes", Phys.Lett. B347 (1995) 230-233.
  15. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Proper Field Quantization in Black Hole Spacetimes", Annals Phys. 244 (1995) 272-282.
  16. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Complete Semiclassical Treatment of the Quantum Black Hole Problem", Annals Phys. 244 (1995) 262-271.
  17. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Conjectures on Non-Local Effects in String Black Holes", Annals Phys. 242 (1995) 265-274.
  18. Leblanc, Y., "Microcanonical Field Dynamics", U. of Alabama preprint UAHEP-959 (1995).
  19. Leblanc, Y., "The Quantum Nature of Black Holes", U. of Alabama preprint UAHEP-944 (1994).
  20. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Black Holes as P-Branes", Invited talk published in the Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Thermal Field Theories and their Applications (Banff, Alberta, Canada, August 15-27, 1993), eds. F.C. Khanna, R. Kobes, G. Kunstatter and H. Umezawa, p. 387 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994).
  21. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "On Black Holes: Above and Below the Extreme Limit", Supersymmetry and Unification of Fundamental Interactions, Editor Pran Nath, p. 337, World Scientific (1994).
  22. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Black Extended Objects, Naked Singularities and P-Branes", Europhys.Lett. 27 (1994) 557-562.
  23. Cox, P.H., B. Harms and Y. Leblanc, "Dilatonic Black Holes, Naked Singularities and Strings", Europhys. Lett. 26 (1994) 321-326.
  24. Leblanc, Y. and J.C. Wallet, "R-Matrix and q-covariant Oscillators for Uq(Sl(n;m))", Appeared in Phys. Lett. B (1993).
  25. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Classical Stringy Black Holes Modify the Thermal Spectrum", U. of Alabama preprint UAHEP-936 (1993).
  26. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Non-Local Effects in String Black Holes", U. of Alabama preprint UAHEP-935 (1993).
  27. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Statistical Mechanics of Extended Black Objects", Phys.Rev. D47 (1993) 2438-2445.
  28. Georgelin, Y. and Y. Leblanc, "Re-Analysis of the Laser Model in Thermofield Dynamics", Prog. Theor. Phys. 89 (1993) 59-76.
  29. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "On the Nature of Extended Black Objects", Proceedings of the Texas/PASCOS Conference, 92. Relativistic Astrophysics and Particle Cosmology, Editors C.W. Ackerlof and M.A. Srednicki, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol. 688, 454-455 (1993).
  30. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "The Nature of Black Holes and Related Objects", Poster presentation at the Texas/PASCOS Conference on Astrophysics and Particle Physics (Berkeley, California, December 13-18,1992). U. of Alabama preprint UAHEP-9220.
  31. Georgelin, Y., and Y. Leblanc, "Laser Radiation and Thermo-Field Dynamics", Field Theory and Collective Phenomena: Proceedings of the Special Conference in honor of Prof. H. Umezawa for the occasion of his retirement (Perugia, Italy, May 28-31, 1992), eds. P. Sodano, F. C. Khanna, Silvana De Lillo, H. Umezawa and G. W. Semenoff, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995). 604 pages.
  32. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Aharonov-Bohm Phase Shifts for Strings Interacting with Axions", Phys. Rev. D45, 2880 (1992).
  33. Harms, B. and Y. Leblanc, "Statistical Mechanics of Black Holes", Phys.Rev. D46 (1992) 2334-2340.
  34. Leblanc, Y. and J.C. Wallet, "More on Finite Temperature Anyon Superconductivity", Mod. Phys. Lett. B6, 1623-1637 (1992).
  35. Leblanc, Y. and A. Tsuchiya, "Real-Time Calculation of Thermally induced Decay of Superstrings Excitations", Int. J. Mod. Phys. A7, 6313-6324 (1992).
  36. Clavelli, L., B. Harms, and Y. Leblanc, "Dynamical Generation of the Effective Potential in Superstring Theory", Int. Jour.Mod. Phys. Lett. A7, 1031 (1992).
  37. Clavelli, L., B. Harms, and Y. Leblanc, "Dynamical Mass Generation of Massless String Excitations at Zero and Finite Temperature", Phys. Lett. B267, 183 (1991).
  38. Georgelin, Y., and Y. Leblanc, "New Non-Equilibrium Regimes of the Reservoir Model", Contribution to the Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Thermal Field Theories and their Applications (Tsukuba, Japan, July 23-27,1990), eds. H. Ezawa, T. Arimitsu and Y. Hashimoto (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).
  39. Knecht, M., Y. Leblanc and J.C. Wallet, "Regularization of Thermal String Theories", Invited talk published in the Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Thermal Field Theories and their Applications (Tsukuba, Japan, July 23-27,1990), eds. H. Ezawa, T. Arimitsu and Y. Hashimoto (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991).
  40. Georgelin, Y., M. Knecht, Y. Leblanc and J.C. Wallet, "Finite Temperature Linear Response Theory of Anyonic Superconductivity", Mod. Phys. Lett. B5, 211-225 (1991).
  41. Georgelin, Y., and Y. Leblanc, "Analysis of the Reservoir Model in Thermo-Field Dynamics", Physica A171, 554-574 (1991).
  42. Leblanc, Y., M. Knecht and J.C. Wallet, "Regularization of Finite Temperature String Theories", Phys. Lett. B237, 357-362 (1990).
  43. Leblanc, Y., "Generalized McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan Theorem and the String Free Energy at Higher Genus", Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 831-834 (1990).
  44. Leblanc, Y., "Genus-2 Free Energy of the Closed Bosonic String", Phys. Rev. D39, 3731-3744 (1989).
  45. Leblanc, Y., "Real-Time Finite Temperature Computations in String Theory", Proceedings of the Workshop on Thermal Field Theories and their Applications (Cleveland, OH, October 3-5, 1988), Physica A158, 536-545 (1989).
  46. Leblanc, Y., "Improved Integral Representation for the Finite Temperature Propagator in String Theory", Phys. Rev. D39, 1139-1151 (1989).
  47. Leblanc, Y., "Cosmological Aspects of the Heterotic String above the Hagedorn Temperature", Phys. Rev. D38, 3087-3093 (1988).
  48. Leblanc, Y., "Bosonic String Theory at Finite Temperature", Proceedings of the CAP-NSERC Summer Institute in Theoretical Physics (Edmonton, Alta, July 10-25, 1987), World Scientific, Singapore, Vol. II, 346-365, (1988).
  49. Leblanc, Y., "Finite Temperature Amplitudes in Open String Systems", Phys. Rev. D37, 1547-1563 (1988).
  50. Leblanc, Y. and H. Umezawa, "Acoustic Effects on the Soliton Lattice in Polyacetylene", J. Phys. C21, 4867-4882 (1988).
  51. Leblanc, Y., H. Matsumoto and H. Umezawa, "Computation of the Critical Exponents in Thermo-Field Dynamics", MIT preprint #1550-CTP (1987).
  52. Leblanc, Y., "String Field Theory at Finite Temperature", Phys. Rev. D36, 1780-1793 (1987).
  53. Leblanc, Y., "Macroscopic Phenomena in Quantum Field Theory", Ph.D. Thesis (H. Umezawa Advisor), U. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (1986).
  54. Leblanc, Y. and H. Umezawa, "Extended Supersymmetry Breaking at Finite Temperature: the O'Raifeartaigh Model", Phys. Rev. D33, 2288-2304 (1986).
  55. Leblanc, Y., H. Matsumoto and H. Umezawa, "Perturbation Theory for Polyacetylene-type Kink Dynamics Model with Acoustic Phonon Effects", J. Math. Phys. 26, 2940-2955 (1985).
  56. Leblanc, Y., H. Matsumoto, H. Umezawa and F. Mancini, "Quasirealistic Polyacetylene Kink Dynamics Model with Acoustic Phonon Effects", Phys. Rev. B30, 5958-5967 (1984).
  57. Leblanc, Y., H. Matsumoto, H. Umezawa and F. Mancini, "The Continuous Limit of the SSH Model and the Soliton of the Polyacetylene Molecule", U. of Alberta preprint (1983).
  58. Jones, F.W., M. Rahman and Y. Leblanc, "A Three-dimensional Numerical Bottom-Hole Temperature Stabilization Model", Geophysical Prospecting 32, 18-36 (1984).
  59. Leblanc, Y., "On Extended Objects and Their Quantum Numbers in Quantum Field Theory", M.Sc. Thesis (H. Umezawa Advisor), U. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (1982).
  60. Leblanc, Y. and G. Semenoff, "Quantum Numbers of Solitons in a Fermion-Soliton System", Phys. Rev. D26, 938-940 (1982).
  61. Leblanc, Y., H.-L. Lam, L.J. Pascoe and F.W. Jones, "A Comparison of Two Methods of Estimating Static Formation Temperature from Well Logs", Geophysical Prospecting 30, 348-357 (1982).
  62. Leblanc, Y., L.J. Pascoe and F.W. Jones, "The Temperature Stabilization of a Borehole", Geophysics 46, 1301-1303 (1981).



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